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Paul J. Lioy, Ph.D.


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Preparedness and response to chemical and biological threats: the role of exposure science.

Sun, 10/22/2017 - 14:00

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Preparedness and response to chemical and biological threats: the role of exposure science.

Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2016 Aug;1378(1):108-117

Authors: Lioy PJ, Laskin JD, Georgopoulos PG

Abstract
There are multiple components to emergency preparedness and the response to chemical and biological threat agents. The 5Rs framework (rescue, reentry, recovery, restoration, and rehabitation) outlines opportunities to apply exposure science in emergency events. Exposure science provides guidance and refined tools for characterizing, assessing, and reducing risks from catastrophic events, such as the release of hazardous airborne chemicals or biological agents. Important challenges to be met include deployment of assets, including medications, before and after an emergency response situation. Assessment of past studies demonstrates the value of integrating exposure science methods into risk analysis and the management of catastrophic events.

PMID: 27479653 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Categories: Publications from UCDPER Members

World Trade Center (WTC) dust exposure in mice is associated with inflammation, oxidative stress and epigenetic changes in the lung.

Thu, 07/20/2017 - 02:00

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World Trade Center (WTC) dust exposure in mice is associated with inflammation, oxidative stress and epigenetic changes in the lung.

Exp Mol Pathol. 2017 Feb;102(1):50-58

Authors: Sunil VR, Vayas KN, Fang M, Zarbl H, Massa C, Gow AJ, Cervelli JA, Kipen H, Laumbach RJ, Lioy PJ, Laskin JD, Laskin DL

Abstract
Exposure to World Trade Center (WTC) dust has been linked to respiratory disease in humans. In the present studies we developed a rodent model of WTC dust exposure to analyze lung oxidative stress and inflammation, with the goal of elucidating potential epigenetic mechanisms underlying these responses. Exposure of mice to WTC dust (20μg, i.t.) was associated with upregulation of heme oxygenase-1 and cyclooxygenase-2 within 3days, a response which persisted for at least 21days. Whereas matrix metalloproteinase was upregulated 7days post-WTC dust exposure, IL-6RA1 was increased at 21days; conversely, expression of mannose receptor, a scavenger receptor important in particle clearance, decreased. After WTC dust exposure, increases in methylation of histone H3 lysine K4 at 3days, lysine K27 at 7days and lysine K36, were observed in the lung, along with hypermethylation of Line-1 element at 21days. Alterations in pulmonary mechanics were also observed following WTC dust exposure. Thus, 3days post-exposure, lung resistance and tissue damping were decreased. In contrast at 21days, lung resistance, central airway resistance, tissue damping and tissue elastance were increased. These data demonstrate that WTC dust-induced inflammation and oxidative stress are associated with epigenetic modifications in the lung and altered pulmonary mechanics. These changes may contribute to the development of WTC dust pathologies.

PMID: 27986442 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Categories: Publications from UCDPER Members